ACT on Career Advancement
Women’s representation in academia decreases the higher up the academic ladder – culminating in the very small percentage of women in decision-making posts, on boards and in committees and as heads of institutions. In 2017 only 27% of board members (including leaders), and 21.7% of heads of institutions in the higher education sector were women (EC, 2019, p. 115). Women in the EU 28 made up only 24% of full professors (Grade A) in 2016 (ibid). Various policies and interventions have been developed at the European, Member State and institutional levels to foster gender equality in decision-making in research and innovation. At the European level, in the ERA Communication, 2012 framework, ‘gender balance’ in decision-making was identified as one of the three objectives of one of the six priority areas: Gender Equality and Gender Mainstreaming.