Early adopters of carsharing with and without BEVs with respect to gender preferences

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Author: Ines Kawgan-Kagan


The majority of current e-carsharing users are middle-aged men with a high education and high income; they are most likely to have a full-time employment. Women are consistently underrepresented in previous studies and therefore this paper focusses on characterization of female early adopters. It builds a basis to identify current female early adopters and understand their preferences in e-carsharing in order to address women as target groups for e-carsharing.


A sample of 492 carsharing subscribers from Berlin is analysed according to socio-demographic backgrounds, mode choice, use and evaluation of (e-) carsharing services. Additionally, attitudinal indices and clusters based on mobility related attitudes are analysed to reveal significant differences between male and female users.


Generally, the results confirm socio-demographic findings from previous literature about early adopters. Comparing females and males revealed differences in income, employment status and age. Female early adopters used battery electric vehicles (BEVs) more often than vehicles with an internal combustion engine and evaluate handling BEVs more positive. They show a higher bike affinity and lower affinities towards technology and innovation than male respondents. They combine public transportation and bicycling with the use of (e-) carsharing services as an additional part of urban mobility. Children do not seem to have an impact of the respective topics, although the findings suggest that services are not used with children.


The analysis of carsharing schemes needs to focus on specific requirements of each trip (e.g. transporting or accompanying children) in order to make sustainable mobility an option for others than one ‘typical early adopter’.

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